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Free Download Iontophoresis PPT with PDF Report
Iontophoresis is a non-invasive method to deliver medication through the skin to a specific area using a continuous direct current. Anti-inflammatory and anesthetic medications dexamethasone and lidocaine are the most common medications delivered using iontophoresis in physical therapy1.
Iontophoresis requires two electrodes, one positively and one negatively charged.
Placement of the electrodes is dependent on the polarity of the medication being delivered. For example, dexamethasone has a negative polarity.
Therefore, the electrode containing dexamethasone will be placed over the affected body part and attached to the negative charge in the electrical circuit. The negative current re;ort the negative dexamethasone ions, driving them through the patient’s skin. Iontophoresis or ion transfer is introduction of substances into the body repot therapeutic purposes using a direct current. Each substance is separated into its ionic components by the action of the current and deposited subcutaneously according to the imposed polarity on the electrode.
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Therapeutic results depend on the ion introduced, the pathology present and the desired effects. The current required for iontophoresis is continuous direct galvanic current, which can be obtained from standard low-voltage generators. The treatment is not the current itself, but rather the ions introduced through that current.
Electro-Chemical Equivalent represents standardized figures for ionic transfer with known currents and time factors. As the determination of the ECE for many complex substances is very difficult, fewer milligrams of these complex substances will penetrate the skin.
So, the ions are repelled into the skin. Sub-dermally, the ions introduced re-combine with the existing ions floating in the blood stream, forming the necessary new compounds for therapeutic interactions. Most researches have indicated that low-level amplitude is more effective than high-level intensities, as higher intensities adversely affect ionic penetration.
It should be put into consideration that a few ions, ready to combine, may be better than a sum of ions, repelling each other because of their similar charges. It was found that the negative electrode cathode is more irritating than the positive one anodedue to the formed sodium hydroxide under its position.
So, the negative electrode should be made larger than the positive electrode usually twiceeven if the negative electrode is the active one. According to the laws of physics, electrons flow from negative to positive, regardless of electrode size.
So, enlarging the negative electrode size lowers the current density on the negative rpeort, leading to reduction of irritation.
Actually, penetration does not exceed 1 mm, with subsequent deeper absorption through the capillary circulation. The bulk of deposited ions is found at the site of the active electrode, where they are stored as either soluble or insoluble compound, to be depleted by the sweep of circulating blood. On the other hand, as the cathode – produces an alkaline reaction iontophoreesis strong sodium hydroxideit is then considered sclerolytic, which is a softening agent due to the hydrogen release, serving in the management of scars and burns.
Both the positive and negative electrodes produce hyperemia and heat due to the resulting vasodilatation. The cathodal hyperemia is generally more pronounced and takes more time iontophorrsis disappear than that of the anode.
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Generally, hyperemia under both electrodes lasts within one hour, causing no more discomfort to the patient. This is the concept of ion transfer. Iontophoresis 5 months ago. Iontophoresis Seminar Report pdf.
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